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Showing 61 results for Type of Study: Research

Mahmood Hashemian, Kamal Heidari Soureshjani,
Volume 1, Number 1 (9-2013)
Abstract

As oral skills are increasingly seen as a high priority, phonology and pronuncia tion teaching are occupying a central position in the teaching and learning of other languages. The present study is an attempt to shed some light on identifying and exploring the diffculties of Iranian EFL learners in phonology and pronunciation. To achieve this goal, 3 male language learners (elementary, intermediate, and advanced) were randomly selected and were required to articulate 3 different types of material. Having analyzed the data, the study revealed that, first, pronouncing /ɪə/ as /eə/, /æ/ as /e/, /ɑ:/ as /ɔ:/, /ʊ/ as /u:/, /aɪ/ as /ɔɪ/, /ɪ/ as /i:/, /əʊ/ as /ɔ:/, /w/ as /v/, /ð/ as /d/ or /z/, /θ/ as /t/ or /s/ and /ŋ/ as /ng/ and mispronouncing /ɒ/, /ʌ/, /ɜ:/, /ə/, /ɔɪ/, /eə/, /r/ and /aʊ/ are the most frequent errors among Persian-speaking learners. Second, the study indicated that the speed of reading was inappropriate for all the beginning, intermediate, and advanced learners. Keywords: phonology, pronunciation errors, speed of reading
Reza Biria, Ahmad Ameri Golestan,
Volume 1, Number 1 (9-2013)
Abstract


Parviz Maftoon , Marzieh Sharif Haratmeh,
Volume 1, Number 1 (9-2013)
Abstract

Framed in a cognitive approach to task-supported L2 vocabulary learning, the present study used a pedagogical approach to investigate the relative effectiveness of tasks with different involvement loads on the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL learners. The goal was to investigate the way that the construct of involvement load is related to the Input Hypothesis (Krashen, 1985) and the Output Hypothesis (Swain, 1996) to see whether the involvement load or input/output-orientation of tasks is the determining factor in task effectiveness. A quasi-experimental design with a pretest-treatment-posttest sequence was used in this study. The participants were 127 university students from four General English classes at Islamic Azad University, Mobarakeh Branch, who were assigned to four instructional groups. Contrary to the predictions of the Involvement Load Hypothesis (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001), the results of the study indicated that involvement load is not the only determining factor in task effectiveness, but input/output-orientation of tasks is also a decisive parameter in task effectiveness. While Laufer and Hulstijn’s proposal is a valuable first step towards building a theory of vocabulary learning, the results of the study indicated that involvement index may well not function independently of the task type, i.e., input or output orientation of a word-focused task.
Parvin Moazamie, Mansour Koosha,
Volume 1, Number 1 (9-2013)
Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of CA- based vs. EA- based error correction on the improvement of the EFL intermediate learners’ Lexical Errors of writing. Forty intermediate students, all males, studying in an English Language Institute in Golpayegan participated in this study. After detecting the participants’ errors, the lexical errors were classified into two categories, EA- based and CA-based errors. The errors which were because of the infuence of L1 on L2 were classified as CA-based errors and the errors which were because of the lack of target language proficiency were classified as EA-based errors. Then, the Wilcoxon Test was used to investigate the effect and the improvement of learners’ lexical errors by EA-based and CA-based error correction. The results of the study showed that there is no significant difference between EA-based and CA- based error correction in the improvement of the participants’ lexical errors.
Firooz Reisi Gahroei, Omid Tabatabaei ,
Volume 1, Number 1 (9-2013)
Abstract

By the emergence of new approaches to teach a second language, finding a good method to teach idioms has been the main concern of some researchers (e.g., Elena & Moreno, 2001 Cook, Fazly, & Stevenson, 2007). To the researcher›s best knowledge few studies have been conducted to examine the effect of different methods of teaching idioms to EFL learners. As a result, this study was designed to investigate the effect of teaching the etymology of idioms and using movie clips containing idioms, as two methods of teaching, on the quality of L2 learners› idiom learning. Serving this purpose, teaching idioms through their etymologies and movie clips and also learners› attitudes toward s using such methods (through using questionnaires) were taken into consideration. After administering a standard language proficiency test (OPT), 90 intermediate, out of a pile of 154 L2 learners, were selected and assigned to three groups randomly, two experimental (one etymology and one movie clip group) and one control group. All the groups were given two idiom multiple-choice tests, one as the pre-test and the other one as the post-test. In one experimental group (A), idioms were taught together with their etymologies and in the other experimental group (B), the same idioms were taught by displaying movie clips containing the idioms, while the control group (C) followed the traditional class activities using synonyms and antonyms. The results of one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests revealed that the participants in etymology and movie clip groups had better performance in post-test than in pretest. Moreover, the results of Chi-square revealed that, on the whole, L2 learners had positive attitudes towards using etymology and movie clips in idiom learning.
Zahra Rezaei, Aliakbar Jafarpour,
Volume 1, Number 1 (9-2013)
Abstract

  This study was an effort towards examining the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ language proficiency and their metaphorical competence. The were 120 Iranian EFL learners studying at SADR English Language Center within the 19-25 age range. The EFL learners’ English proficiency from Elementary to Advanced which was determined by the OPT. Afterwards, the students were administered a researcher-made test assessing their metaphorical competence. The test consisted of ten concepts with each concept containing metaphors together with their Persian equivalents written in English. Having scores in hand, the researcher was able to see whether there were any significant relationships between the students’ language proficiency and their metaphorical competence. The researcher used the SPSS software package to calculate degree of correlation between participants’ language proficiency and their metaphorical competence. Using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient formula researcher used the statistical procedure of one-way ANOVA to determine the relationship between learners’ metaphorical competence and their language proficiency. The findings revealed that the more proficient the EFL learners in English language, the more metaphorically competent they would be.
Saeedeh Shafee Nahrkhalaji ,
Volume 1, Number 1 (9-2013)
Abstract

The necessity of conducting more studies addressing the development of pragmatic profciency and strong pragmatic awareness for English language learners has made the role of instruction and feedback in teaching pragmatic knowledge of utmost importance. The present study evaluates the relative effectiveness of four types of instruction for teaching some pragmatic markers including topic change markers, mitigation markers, interjections and hybrid basic markers to 75 advanced Iranian learners of English: explicit instruction only, explicit instruction with metalinguistic feedback, structured input instruction only, and structured in- put instruction with metalinguistic feedback. Treatment group performance was compared with control group performance on pre-tests, post-tests and follow-up tests that contained an open-ended discourse completion test and a multiple-choice pragmatic listening comprehension test. The results of the data analysis revealed that students› ability to comprehend and produce pragmatic markers improved significantly in treatment groups and that pragmatic interlanguage is permeable to instruction in EFL settings. However, there were statistically significant differences among the four treatment groups regarding awareness of different pragmatic markers and their appropriate use. These findings give us some useful insight on the teachability of pragmatic markers and the role of instruction and feedback in the classroom to develop pragmatic competence of EFL learners.
Ghazaleh Shafeniya, AhmadReza Lotfi ,
Volume 1, Number 1 (9-2013)
Abstract

  In the introductory stages of language learning, students are exposed to parative forms explicitly taught in their textbooks. As Knoch (2004) mthis is accomplished by teaching the comparative form of the adjective generally directly followed by a than clause. This study aimed to compare between native and nonnative material developers with regard to the coverage of comparative forms. In doing so, two corpora of high school changes were developed and juxtaposed. The data were gathered books and converting them into computerized forms. The data by the frequency percentages of the forms and further examined and compared as well. The results revealed that there was a significant difference corpora with regard to the coverage of comparative forms.
Hooshang Khoshsima, Ma’soume Jahani,
Volume 1, Number 2 (9-2014)
Abstract

Since the emergence of the process-oriented approach in second language writing instruction, the issues of writing instruction have been predominantly concerned with what and how error feedback should be given to the students’ writing. The present study investigated the effect of explicit corrective feedback on writing accuracy of Iranian intermediate EFL learners (N = 44) in Hamedan Islamic Azad University. The three most frequent occurring errors in EFL learners’ writing pre-test were chosen to be targeted. Two groups were formed: the explicit corrective feedback group (N = 22), and the control group (N = 20). Paired samples t-tests revealed that both the explicit and control groups increased their writing accuracy in immediate post-test in comparison with pre-test, but Independent t-test indicated that there was not a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of the control and experiment groups (p = 0.65). In delayed post-test, there was no significant differences between writing accuracy of explicit and control groups (p = 0.72). Paired samples t-tests indicated that there was no significant accuracy mean difference between writing pre-test and delayed post-test of the explicit group.The writing accuracy gain of the control group in delayed post-test in comparison with writing pre-test was statistically significant.
Amir Sabzevari, Vahid Sadeghi,
Volume 1, Number 2 (9-2014)
Abstract

Contrastive rhetorical analysis as a way of understanding different ways through which writers from various cultural backgrounds shape their discourse was officially initiated by the works of Kaplan (1966). This study tries to use the methodology to investigate the news reports in two American and Iranian widely published newspapers. Using the analytical methodologies of contrastive rhetoric and genre analysis, 10 news reports written by Iranian and American journalist were selected and analyzed. Results revealed that though the genre written by both groups of writers followed the same generic or rhetorical organizational structure, the strategies writers from the two different socio-cultural environments took to realize the moves in the genres were different.
Mohammad Reza Sadeghi,
Volume 1, Number 2 (9-2014)
Abstract

This study was an attempt to investigate a learning style and multiple intelligences survey distributed among two groups of senior-level EFL male and female students to use appropriate techniques and activities for different gender. Two standardized instruments were used during the data collection process. It should be noted that a t-test was conducted to conclude the differences between male and female groups. Since there was the same survey as a data elicitation instrument, it was possible to easily compare the results from the two groups. Furthermore, sufficient considerations of both audiences were taken into account during the design of the survey. The first part of the survey aimed at the students’ desired learning styles and the second part focused on multiple intelligences. Data analysis displayed the prevailing learning styles and multiple intelligences in each group. Furthermore, findings revealed that prevailing learning style preferences of the male group were visual, global, closure-oriented, extroverted, and intuitive learning style, respectively, whereas the female group preferred mostly a global, intuitive, closure-oriented, a visual, and finally an extroverted learning style. The findings of the study indicated that knowing the strengths and potentials of the male and female students regarding their multiple intelligences and learning styles would help both language teachers and students in order to make progress, develop language skills, and select appropriate syllabus designs and language learning methods.
Ferdos Taleb, Zahra Fotovatnia,
Volume 1, Number 2 (9-2014)
Abstract

According to a basic prediction made by the revised hierarchical model (RHM,Kroll & Stewart, 1994), there is no L2 conceptual connection at the beginning stages of language learning as L2 learners mostly rely on L1 conceptual connections to retrieve the meaning of the L2 words.With increasing proficiency, however, there would be a direct access from L2 to the conceptual system. Available literature challenges this hypothesis, as it shows the existence of the L2 conceptual connections from early stages of L2 acquisition (Duyck&Brysbaert, 2004). There is one study which supports this hypothesis however, it is problematic in the sense that it used a long prime exposure duration (Basnight-Brown &Altarriba, 2007). In an attempt to reevaluate the prediction of this model, two groups of highly proficient and two groups of elementaryPersian learners of English were tested on noncognate stimuli with lexical decision task in both forward and backward direction. The results obtained for elementary L2 learners were consistent with RHM. The data showed the presence of strong L1 conceptual connections and the absence of L2 conceptual connections at this level of proficiency. However, the pattern obtained for highly proficient L2 learners could not be interpretedin terms of the model.
Shadi Forutanian,
Volume 1, Number 2 (9-2014)
Abstract

Technical terminology has a significant role in translation of technical or scientific texts. Unfortunately, most of research in this area has not perceived the urgent need for a model to analyze or shown how translate technical or scientific terminology. In this paper, the researcher attempts to designs a workable model for translation of technical or scientific terminology. The major aim of this model is to provide a real equivalence for both one word terms and above words terms. The design of such a model benefits from different theories about equivalence and approaches that are used for finding real equivalence which translation studies especially technical translation are still lacking.
Behnam Ghasemi, Hamid Reza Haghverdi,
Volume 1, Number 2 (9-2014)
Abstract

Textbooks play a pivotal role in language learning classrooms. The problem is that among a wide range of textbooks in market which is appropriate for a specific classroom and a group of learners. In order to evaluate ELT textbooks theorists and writers have offered different kinds of evaluative frameworks based on a number of principles and criteria. This study evaluates a series of ELT textbook, namely, American English File by the use of Littlejohn’s (1998) evaluative framework to see what explicit features of the book are, what pedagogic values it has, whether it is in line with its claimed objectives, and what its merits and demerits are. Littlejohn believes that we should evaluate a textbook based on its own pedagogic values and we should see what is in it not what teacher and evaluators think must exist in it. Consequently his framework is claimed to be devoid of any impressionistic ideas and it is in-depth and objective rather than being subjective. Nine ELT experts and ten ELT teachers helped the researcher rate the evaluative checklists. The results of the study show that although a number of shortcomings and drawbacks were found in American English File, it stood up reasonably well to a detailed and in-depth analysis and that its pedagogic values and positive attributes far out-weighed its shortcomings. The internal consistency between ratings was computed via the statistical tool of Cronbach’s alpha that indicated a desirable inter-rater reliability.
Saeed Ketabi, Reza Torabi,
Volume 1, Number 2 (9-2014)
Abstract

This research study aimed at investigating whether using peer-provided feedbacks rather than teacher-provided comments would result in any significance difference in Iranian English undergraduate students’ ability in writing. In so doing, based on a pretest (an OPT & a writing exam), 40 subjects were assigned to two homogeneous groups of equal number the subjects in the control group received more traditional form of feedback i.e., Teacher’s Written Comments (TW) and those in the experimental group who received the alternative: Peers’ Written Comments (PW). The students were required to write ten paragraphs, five pairs, on each topic, one before receiving feedback and another, the revised version, after the feedback. The analyses of the data revealed that peer feedback--in its general sense--affects students’ writing performances, which in turn means that the students do incorporate suggestions made by their teacher and/or peers while revising their drafts. In sum, Peer-reviews in the form of comments and suggestions given by the students on one another’s drafts proved beneficial.
Hossein Barati, Zohreh Kashkouli,
Volume 1, Number 2 (9-2014)
Abstract

The present study examined the effect of task-based assessment on the type and frequency of test-taking strategies that three proficiency groups of Iranian adult EFL learners used when completing the First Certificate in English FCE reading paper. A total of 70 EFL university undergraduates (53 females and 17 males) took part in the main phase of this study. They were divided into three proficiency groups: high, intermediate, and low. A set of Chi-square analyses was used to explore the type and frequency of test-taking strategies used by participants. The results suggested that the intermediate group test takers used the strategies significantly different after completing each task (sub-test) in the FCE reading paper. However, the high and low proficient test takers› use of strategies was only significant after completing the third task of the FCE reading paper. The findings also revealed that a pattern could be drawn of the type of strategies used by the three proficiency groups who participated in this study. Nonetheless, such a pattern shifted at times depending on the ability of the test takers and/or the task under study.
Mohammad Taghi Shahnazari, Azizollah Dabaghi,
Volume 2, Number 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Abstract Reading is a cognitive activity involving skills, strategies, attentional resources, knowledge resources and their integration. The reader’s role is to decode the written symbols to allow for the recovery of information from long-term memory to construct a plausible interpretation of the writer’s message. Various number of reading models have been proposed by researchers among which some focus on motivational and emotional aspects of reading. Others highlight the cognitive aspects of reading. In this study, the models characterizing reading in terms of cognitive aspects are revieweded, and different viewpoints on the reading process are described. This may help EFL/ESL teachers to improve their understanding of the reading process, update their perspectives on teaching reading tasks which in turn might result in more efficient learning by not putting too much cognitively demanding reading tasks on EFL/ESL learners.
Adnan Satariyan, Ahmad Mohseni,
Volume 2, Number 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Abstract This study identifies and analyses the common errors in writing skill of the first year students of Azad University of South Tehran Branch in relation to their first language (L1), the type of high school they graduated, and their exposure to media and technology in order to learn English. It also determines the categories in which the errors are committed (content, organisation/discourse, vocabulary, mechanics, or syntax) and whether or not there is a significant difference in the percentage of errors committed and these categories. Participants of this study are 190 first year students that are asked to write an essay. An error analysis model adapted from Brown (2001) and Gayeta (2002) is then used to evaluate the essay writings in terms of content, organisation, vocabulary, mechanics, and syntax or language use. The results of the study show that the students have greater difficulties in organisation, content, and vocabulary and experience less difficulties in mechanics and syntax.
Ali Rahimi, Rouhollah Askari Bigdeli, ,
Volume 2, Number 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Resilience as a psychological emotional mechanism is employed by the individuals when they are in stressful irritating situations to be able to resume their previous productive mental activities. It is a vital coping activity when students go through upsetting events, psychological breakdowns, academic failures, suffocating educational atmospheres, and undemocratic teaching techniques. The essential elements of such a construct can be diverse based upon a whole prism of cultural specificities. The crux of the matter is that resilience is immensely influenced by social parameters and significant others who are in interaction with the students. The objective of this study is to investigate the predictive relationship between perceived social support (social support of family, significant others, and friends) and resilience in English language learners. To this end, 200 EFL learners studying at university level participated in the study. The data were gathered through two questionnaires and multiple regression analysis was run as a statistical procedure to analyze the data. The results of the study indicated that social support of family, significant others, and friends significantly predicted resilience. The implications of this study pointed to the importance of significant others, and social support from teachers, family and friends in providing EFL learners with effective copying skills manifested as resilience in confrontation with unwelcoming stressful tasks and challenges in the process of language learning.
Mohammad Bagher Khatibi,
Volume 2, Number 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Abstract The present study examined the effect of genre-based tasks on EFL learners' speaking performance and probed whether genre-based tasks may empower EFL learners to perform better on speaking tests. A further concern of the study was to explore whether the effect of genre-based tasks on speaking ability of EFL learners varied across different age groups, i.e. teenagers (13-16 years old) and young adults (24-27 years old). To this end, some generic based consciousness-raising tasks (CRT) were adapted from the model proposed by Benedict (2006) to develop control of a genre used as the treatment procedures. Two different speaking tests of different genres (e.g. recount, report, review, etc.), used as pretest and posttest, were administered to 120 senior university students majoring in English language translation. The results indicated that consciousness-raising tasks significantly affected EFL learners' speaking performance. However, the effect of generic-based CRTs did not vary across different age groups. Overall, the findings provided empirical support for the facilitative effect of generic-based consciousness-raising tasks on speaking performance of EFL learners. The findings may promise implications for EFL speaking syllabuses and provide guidelines to designers to accommodate the insights derived from the genre-based instruction perspective.

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دانش و پژوهش در آموزش زبان انگلیسی Research in English Language Pedagogy
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