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:: for authors ::

Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology

  An International Journal


  Guide for Authors



  Types of Articles

  Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology publishes the results of fundamental and applied research concerning nutrition or physiology of farm animal (poultry, cattle, sheep, goat, horse, honey bee, camel). Submitted manuscripts shall provide new facts or confirmatory data. Papers dealing with experimental design, teaching, extension endeavors, or those of historical or biographical interest may also be appropriate. A limited number of review papers will be considered for publication if they contribute significant additional knowledge, or synthesis of knowledge, to a subject area. Papers that have been, or are scheduled to be, published elsewhere will not be accepted. Publication of a preliminary report, such as an abstract, does not preclude consideration of a complete report for publication as long as it has not been published in full in a proceedings or similar scientific publication; appropriate identification of previously published preliminary reports should be provided in a title page footnote. Opinions or views expressed in papers published by Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the opinion of the editor-in-chief.


  Original Research Articles should report the results of original research. The material should not have been previously published elsewhere, except in a preliminary form. They should not occupy more than 12 Journal pages.


  Review Articles should cover subjects falling within the scope of the journal which are of active current interest. Reviews will often be invited, but submitted reviews will also be considered for publication. All reviews will be subject to the same peer review process as applies for original papers. They should not occupy more than 12 Journal pages.


  Short Communication is a concise but complete description of a limited investigation, which will not be included in a later paper. Short Communications may be submitted to the journal as such, or may result from a request to condense a regular paper, during the peer review process. They should not occupy more than 5 journal pages (approximately 10 manuscript pages) including figures, tables and references.


  Technical Note is a report on a new method, technique or procedure falling within the scope of Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology . It may involve a new algorithm, computer program (e.g. for statistical analysis or for simulation), or testing method for example. The Technical Note should be used for information that cannot adequately incorporated into an Original Research Article, but that is of sufficient value to be brought to the attention of the readers of Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology . The note should describe the nature of the new method, technique or procedure and clarify how it differs from those currently in use if cannot be incorporated. They should not occupy more than 5 Journal pages.



  Papers must be written in English. The text and all supporting materials must use American or British, but not a mixture of these.

  Authors whose primary language is not English are strongly encouraged to use an English-language service such as one of those listed below*:

  Asia Science Editing: http://www.asiascienceediting.com/

  Biomeditor: http://www.biomeditor.com

  Bioscience Editing Solutions: http://scienceditors.com

  BioScienceEditors: http://www.bioscienceeditors.com

  BioScience Writers: http://www.biosciencewriters.com/

  Editage: http://www.editage.com

  Boston BioEdit: http://www.bostonbioedit.com/

  English Manager Science Editing: http://www.sciencemanager.com

  Elsevier's WebShop: http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting /

  ESE - English Science Editing: http://www.english-science.com

  Inter-Biotec: http://www.inter-biotec.com

  International Science Editing: http://www.internationalscienceediting.com/

  ScienceDocs: http://www.sciencedocs.com

  Scriptoria: http://www.script-edit.com

  SPI Publisher Services: http://www.prof-editing.com/index.php

  SquirrelScribe.com: http://www.squirrelscribe.com/

  Write Science Right: http://www.writescienceright.com/

  *This is a partial list for informational purposes only. Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology has not an interest in these services, and neither endorses nor takes responsibility for these services, which are commercial, for-profit entities.

  In addition, use of any of these services does not guarantee the acceptability of a manuscript for publication.


  Editorial Review and Acceptance

  The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our readership. Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are peer reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and the Editor. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board, who reserves the right to refuse any material for publication.

  Manuscripts should be written so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in the particular field. They should be written in a clear, concise, direct style. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific content, the Editor and the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader. If extensive alterations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.


  Care and Use of Animals

  Authors must make it clear that experiments were conducted in a manner that avoided unnecessary discomfort to the animals by the use of proper management and laboratory techniques. Experiments shall be conducted in accordance with the principles and specific guidelines presented in Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching, 3rd edition, 2010.


  Copyright Agreement

  Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement'. In signing the form it is assumed that authors have obtained permission to use any copyrighted or previously published material. All authors must read and agree to the conditions outlined in the form, and must sign the form. Articles cannot be published until a signed form has been received.




  Submission of Manuscripts

  Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.jfanp.ir or send to jfanp@khuisf.ac.ir . Authors must supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email. Two files should be supplied: the covering letter and the manuscript (in Word format). All articles submitted to the Journal must comply with these instructions. Failure to do so will result in return of the manuscript and possible delay in publication.


  Covering Letter

  Papers are accepted for publication in the Journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. This must be stated in the covering letter. The covering letter must also contain an acknowledgment that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript. Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest.


  Preparing the Manuscript



  Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced, with lines and pages numbered consecutively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points. All margins should be at least 30 mm . All special characters (e.g., Greek, math, symbols) should be inserted using the symbols palette available in this font. Equations created using the new Equation Builder feature in Microsoft Word 2007 may not be compatible with earlier versions of Word or other software used in our journal composition system. Tables and figures should be placed in separate sections at the end of the manuscript (not placed in the text). Failure to follow these instructions may result in an immediate rejection of the manuscript.


  Headings. Major Headings are centered (except ABSTRACT), all capitals, boldface, and consist of ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION (or RESULTS AND DISCUSSION), ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (optional), and REFERENCES. First Subheadings are placed on a separate line, begin at the left margin, the first letter of all important words are capitalized, and the headings are boldface and italic. Text that follows a first subheading should be in a new paragraph. Second Subheadings begin the first line of a paragraph. They are indented, boldface, italic, and followed by a period. The first letter of each important word should be capitalized. The text follows immediately after the final period of the subheading.


  Parts of the Manuscript

  Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: title page, abstract and key words, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion (or results and discussion), acknowledgments (optional), references , tables (each table complete with title and footnotes) and figures.


  Title Page. The title page includes a running head or short title ( not more than 45 characters, No abbreviations should be used) ; the title ( boldface and capitalized , as brief as possible, including the species involved and numbers must be given in words rather than in numerals ); names of authors ( first name, last name ; no title, positions, or degrees) and affiliation: Affiliations will be footnoted using the numbered. The corresponding author should be indicated with *, affiliation including the department, city, state and country (all with first letters capitalized).


  Abstract. The Abstract consists of no more than 300 words, in one paragraph and It must summarize the major objectives, methods, results (with statistical evidence; i.e., P-values) , conclusions, and practical applications of the research. The Abstract must consist of complete sentences and use of abbreviations should be limited. References to other work and footnotes are not permitted. The Abstract and Key Words must be on a separate sheet of paper.


  Key Words. List up to 6 key words or phrases including the species, variables tested, and the major response criteria. The first letter of each key word is lowercase (unless a proper noun); key words are separated by commas; and no abbreviations should be used.


  Introduction. The Introduction, while brief, should provide the reader with information necessary for understanding research presented in the paper. Previous work on the topic should be summarized, and the objectives of the current research must be clearly stated.


  Materials and Methods. All sources of products, equipment, and chemicals used in the experiments must be specified parenthetically at first mention in text, tables, and figures [i.e., (model 123, ABC Corp., Provo, UT)]. A clear description or specific original reference is required for all biological, analytical, and statistical procedures. All modifications of procedures must be explained. Papers must contain analyzed values for those dietary ingredients that are crucial to the experiment. Papers dealing with the effects of feed additives or graded levels of a specific nutrient must give analyzed values for the relevant additive or nutrient in the diet(s). Dates of experimental activities if appropriate, animals [breed, strain, sex, age, body weight, and weighing conditions (i.e., with or without restriction of feed and water)], surgical techniques, and measurements, statistical models should be described clearly and fully. Also, provide a publication reference for the methodology used in kits. Centrifugal force should be provided in × g, not rpm, and duration and temperature of centrifugation must be included. Include volume of blood collected, container used, and amount of preservative or anticoagulant (e.g., heparin).

  Statistical analysis: Appropriate statistical methods should be used, although the biology should be emphasized. Statistical methods commonly used in the animal sciences need not be described in detail, but adequate references should be provided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, and experimental unit must be designated. Any restrictions used in estimating parameters should be defined. Reference to a statistical package without reporting the sources of variation (classes) and other salient features of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal contrasts, is not sufficient. A statement of the results of the statistical analysis should justify the interpretations and conclusions. The experimental unit is the smallest unit to which an individual treatment is imposed. Measurements on the same experimental unit over time also are not independent and should not be considered as independent experimental units. Provide a validation for assays [e.g., mean and CV for repeated analysis of a sample (both between and within-assay if available) and the sensitivity (minimum amount or concentration detectable)]. The pooled standard error of the mean is the preferred estimate of experimental error.


  Results. The results are presented in the form of tables or figures when feasible. The text should explain or elaborate on the tabular data, but numbers should not be repeated within the text. Sufficient data, all with some index of variation attached (including significance level; i.e., P-value), should be presented to allow the reader to interpret the results of the experiment. Reporting the actual P-value is preferred to the use of the terms significant and highly significant. Thus, the observed significance level (e.g., P = 0.027) should be presented, thereby allowing the reader to decide what to reject.


  Discussion. The discussion should interpret the results clearly and concisely in terms of biological mechanisms and significance and also should integrate the research findings with the body of previously published literature to provide the reader with a broad base on which to accept or reject the hypotheses tested. A stand-alone Discussion section should not refer to any tables or figures, nor should it include P-values (unless citing a P-value from another work).

  In Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology authors have the option of combining the Results and Discussion into one section.

  Acknowledgments. The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.

  References. The Harvard (author, date) system of referencing is used.

  Citations in Text: All citations in the text should refer to the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication; Smith (1992), Smith and Jones (1992) or Smith and Jones (1990, 1992). If the sentence structure requires that the authors’ names be included in parentheses, the proper format is (Smith and Jones, 1982; Jones, 1988a,b; Jones et al., 1993). Where there are more than two authors of one article, the first author’s name is followed by “et al.” : Smith et al. (1993). More than one article listed in the same sentence of text must be in chronological order first, and alphabetical order for two publications in the same year.

  The author’s own unpublished work should be listed in the text as “(J. Smith, unpublished data).” Personal communications and unpublished data must not be included in the References section.

  References section: To be listed in the References section, papers must be published or accepted for publication (“in press”). In the References section, references are listed alphabetically by the author(s)’ last name(s), and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication. All authors’ names must appear in the References section.

  Sample references are as follows:


  1. Journal articles and abstracts

  Bagley LG, Christensen VL. 1991. Hatchability and physiology of turkey embryos incubated at sea level with increased eggshell permeability. Poultry Science, 70:1412–1418.

  Hall, J. B., R. B. Staigmiller, R. E. Short, R. A. Bellows,S. E. Bartlett, and D. A. Phelps. 1993. Body composition at puberty in beef heifers as influenced by nutrition and breed. Journal of Animal Science, 71(Suppl. 1):205. (Abstr.)


  2. Book

  Nalbandov AV. 1963. Advances in Neuroendocrinology, 2nd edn. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.

  National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.


  3. Chapter in a book

  Folley SJ, Malpress FH. 1948. Hormonal control on mammary growth. In: Pincuss G, Thimamm KV (eds), The Hormones, Vol. 1, pp. 695–743. Academic Press, New York.


  4. Conference proceedings

  Van der Werf JHJ. 1990. A note on the use of conditional models to estimate additive genetic variance in selected populations. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Genetics and Applied Livestock Production, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp: 476–479.


  5. Electronic publication

  National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). 1999. Nucleotide–nucleotide BLAST (blastn) [homepage on the Internet]. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD; [cited 13 December 2002]. Available from URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/


  6. Patent

  El Halawani ME, Rosenboim I. 2004. Method to enhance reproductive performance in poultry. University of Minnesota, Assignee, US Patent, No. 6,766,767.


  Tables. Tables must be created using the MS Word table feature and inserted in the manuscript after the references section. Author-defined abbreviations must be defined (or redefined) in each table. When possible, tables should be organized to fit across the page without running broadside. Each column must have a heading (e.g., Item, Ingredient, Trait, Fatty acid). Units should be separated from headings by a comma. Limit the data field to the minimum needed for meaningful comparison within the accuracy of the methods. In the body of the table, references to footnotes should be numerals. Each footnote should begin on a new line. To indicate significant differences among means within a row or column, superscript lowercase letters are used; the preferred statement in the footnotes is: “Within a row (or column), means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).” Do not use vertical lines and use few horizontal lines. Use of bold and italic typefaces in the table body should be done sparingly; such use must be defined in a footnote. Each table must be on a separate page.


  Figure. Figures should be placed at the end of the manuscript and each figure should be placed on a separate page (separated by section breaks) and identified by the figure number. Figure captions should be typed double spaced on a separate page. The use of color in figures should be avoided unless it is essential to understanding the figure.


  Additional Usage Notes

  Units. All measurements must be given in SI units.


  Trade names. At the first mention of a chemical substance, give the generic name only. Trade names should not be used. Drugs should be referred to by their generic names, rather than brand names. If proprietary drugs have been used in the study, refer to these by their generic name, mentioning the proprietary name, and the name and location of the manufacturer, in parentheses.


  Scientific names. Upon its first use in the title, abstract and text, the common name of a species should be followed by the scientific name (Genus, species and authority) in parentheses. However, for well-known species, the scientific name may be omitted from the article title. If no common name exists in English, the scientific name should be used only.




  Abbreviations. Author-derived abbreviations should be defined at first use in the abstract and again in the body of the manuscript. The following abbreviations should be used in Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology; plural abbreviations do not require a final “s”. Use of 3-letter abbreviations for amino acids (e.g., Ala) and use of standard abbreviations for elements (e.g., S).




  Physical units








  degree Celsius






  equivalent (only can be used with a prefix)








  international unit














  molar (concentration; preferred over mol/L)




  normal (concentration)


  metric ton (1,000 kg)












  Units of Time




























  Statistical symbols and abbreviations






  analysis of variance


  coefficient of variation


  degree(s) of freedom


  least significant difference


  sample size




  simple correlation coefficient

  r 2

  simple coefficient of determination


  multiple correlation coefficient

  R 2

  multiple coefficient of determination

  s 2

  variance (sample)


  standard deviation (sample)


  standard error


  standard error of the differences of



  standard error of the mean


  probability of Type I error


  probability of Type II error


  mean (population)


  standard deviation (population)


  variance (population)


  chi-squared distribution













  amino acid(s)


  adrenocorticotropic hormone


  acid detergent fiber


  average daily feed intake


  average daily gain


  acid detergent insoluble nitrogen


  acid detergent lignin


  adenosine diphosphate


  artificial insemination


  acid insoluble ash


  adenosine triphosphate


  bovine serum albumin


  colony-forming unit


  conjugated linoleic acid


  coenzyme A


  crude protein (N × 6.25)


  digestible energy


  dry matter


  dry matter intake


  deoxyribonucleic acid


  equine chorionic gonadotropin


  ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid


  essential fatty acid




  enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay




  free fatty acid(s)


  follicle-stimulating hormone


  gross energy


  gain-to-feed ratio


  gas-liquid chromatography


  general linear model


  gonadotropin-releasing hormone


  human chorionic gonadotropin


  high-performance (pressure) liquid chromatography




  insulin-like growth factor


  lethal dose 50%


  luteinizing hormone


  metabolizable energy


  metabolizable protein


  messenger ribonucleic acid


  monounsaturated fatty acid


  nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


  reduced form of NAD


  neutral detergent fiber


  neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen


  net energy


  net energy for gain


  net energy for lactation


  net energy for maintenance


  nonesterified fatty acid


  number (use only in tables, not in the text)


  nonprotein nitrogen


  National Research Council


  organic matter


  polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis


  phosphate-buffered saline



  polymerase chain reaction




  pale, soft, and exudative (meat)


  polyunsaturated fatty acid(s)


  quantitative trait locus (loci)


  ruminally degradable protein




  ribonucleic acid


  respiratory quotient


  ruminally undegradable protein


  ribosomal ribonucleic acid


  Statistical Analysis System


  sodium dodecyl sulfate


  saturated fatty acid






  total digestible nutrients


  thin layer chromatography


  transfer ribonucleic acid


  total sulfur amino acids


  US Department of Agriculture




  volatile fatty acid(s)






  volume/volume (used only in parentheses)


  Weight (use only in tables, not in the text)


  weight/volume (used only in parentheses)
















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:: for authors ::
Journal of Research in Agricultural Science An International Journal Guide for Authors Types of contribution 1. Original research papers 2. Short communications Original research papers should report the results of original research. The material should not have been previously published elsewhere, except in a preliminary form. A Short communication is a concise but complete description of a limited investigation, which will not be included in a later paper. Short communications should be as completely documented, both by reference to the literature and description of the experimental procedures employed, as a regular paper. They are 2 to 4 printed pages (about 5 to 10 manuscript pages, including figures, tables and references). Submission of manuscripts Submission of an article is understood to imply that the article is original and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. Submission also implies that all authors have approved the paper for release and are in agreement with its content. Upon acceptance of the article by the journal, the author(s) will be asked to sign a "Journal Publishing Agreement" (for more information on this and copyright see (http;//jras.khuisf.ac.ir) . Journal of Research in Agricultural Science uses an online, electronic submission system that you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. When submitting an electronic version of their manuscript when the uploading is complete, the system automatically generates an electronic (PDF) proof, which is then used for reviewing. All correspondence, including the Editor's decision and request for revisions, will be communicated by e-mail. Preparation of manuscripts 1. Manuscripts should be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by an English-speaking colleague prior to submission. 2. Manuscripts should be typewritten, typed on one side of the paper (with numbered lines), with wide margins and double spacing throughout, i.e. also for abstracts, footnotes and references. Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables, etc. should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should be made to page numbers; if necessary, one may refer to sections. Avoid excessive usage of italics to emphasize part of the text. 3. Manuscripts in general should be organized in the following order: Title (should be clear, descriptive and concise) Name(s) of author(s) Complete postal address(es) of affiliations Full telephone, E-mail and fax number of the corresponding author Present address(es) of author(s) if applicable Complete correspondence address to which the proofs should be sent Abstract (abstract should be clear,descriptive and not longer than 250 words). Key words (indexing terms), normally 3-6 items Introduction Materials and methods (Material studied, area descriptions, methods, techniques) Results Discussion Conclusion Acknowledgements and any additional information concerning research grants, etc. References Tables Figure captions 4. In typing the manuscript, titles and subtitles should not be run within the text. They should be typed on a separate line, without indentation. Use lower-case letter type. 5. SI units should be used. Tables 1. Authors should take notice of the limitations set by the size and lay-out of the journal. Large tables should be avoided. Reversing columns and rows will often reduce the dimensions of a table. 2. If many data are to be presented, an attempt should be made to divide them over two or more tables. 3. Tables should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. The text should include references to all tables. 4. Each table should be typewritten on a separate page of the manuscript. Tables should never be included in the text. 5. Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title. 6. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be added between parentheses. 7. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead. 8. Any explanation essential to the understanding of the table should be given as a footnote at the bottom of the table. Illustrations Preparation of electronic illustrations. Submitting your artwork in an electronic format helps us to produce your work to the best possible standards, ensuring accuracy, clarity and a high level of detail. General points• Always supply high-quality printouts of your artwork, in case conversion of the electronic artwork is problematic. • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.• Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.• Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times and Symbol.• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files, and supply a separate listing of the files and the software used.• Provide all illustrations as separate files and as hardcopy printouts on separate sheets.• Provide captions to illustrations separately.• Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version• Submit colour illustrations as original photographs, high-quality computer prints or transparencies, close to the size expected in publication, or as 35 mm slides. Polaroid colour prints are not suitableThis journal offers electronic submission services and graphic files can be uploaded. Non-electronic illustrations Provide all illustrations as high-quality printouts, suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction) without retouching. Number illustrations consecutively in the order in which they are referred to in the text. They should accompany the manuscript, but should not be included within the text. Clearly mark all illustrations on the back (or - in case of line drawings - on the lower front side) with the figure number and the author's name and, in cases of ambiguity, the correct orientation. Mark the appropriate position of a figure in the article. Captions Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions on a separate sheet, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Color charges Authors will be charged for including colour illustrations in the printed version at the following rates and are encouraged only to consider colour if necessary for clarity or comprehension: 1st page: Euro 100. Every 2nd page: Euro 50. References 1. All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of author's names and dates are exactly the same in the text as in the reference list. 2. In the text refer to the author's name (without initial) and year of publication. Examples: "Since Jackson (1988) has shown that..." "This is in agreement with results obtained later (Austick, 1993)". 3. If reference is made in the text to a publication written by more than two authors the name of the first author should be used followed by "et al.". This indication, however, should never be used in the list of references. In this list names of first author and co-authors should be mentioned. 4. References cited together in the text should be arranged chronologically. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically on authors' names, and chronologically per author. If an author's name in the list is also mentioned with co-authors the following order should be used: publications of the single author, arranged according to publication dates –publications of the same author with one co-author – publications of the author with more than one co-author. Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 1993a, 1993b, etc. 5. Use the following system for arranging your references: a. For periodicals Tillman R.W., D.R. Scotter, B.E. Clothier and R.E. White. 1991. Solute transport during intermittent water flow in a field soil and some implications for irrigation and fertilizer application. Agricultural Water Management, 20: 119-133. b. For edited symposia, special issues, etc. published in a periodical Iwata M., T. Hirano and S. Hasegawa. 1982. Behavior and plasma sodium regulation of chum salmon fry during transition into seawater. In: Bern, H.A., Mahnken, C.V.W. (Eds.), Salmonid Smoltification. Proceedings of a Symposium, 29 June-1 July 1981, at La Jolla, CA, U.S.A. Aquaculture 28, 133-142. c. For books Bartik M., A. Piskač. 1981. Veterinary Toxicology, Developments in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 7. Elsevier, Amsterdam. d. For multi-author books Vermeer J.G., J.H.J. Joosten. 1992. Conservation and management of bog and fen reserves in the Netherlands. In: Verhoeven, J.T.A. (Ed.), Fens and Bogs in The Netherlands: Vegetation, History, Nutrient Dynamics and Conservation. Geobotany, 18. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 433-478. e. For unpublished reports, departmental notes, etc. Dickson J.W., J.K. Henshall, M.F. O'Sullivan and B.D. Soane. 1979. Compaction effects under commercial and experimental cage wheels in comparison with rubber types on loose soil. Scot. Inst. Agric. Eng., Dep. Note SIN/261 (unpubl.) 9 pp. 6. In the case of publications in any language other than English, the original title is to be retained. However, the titles of publications in non-Latin alphabets should be transliterated, and a notation such as "(in Russian)" or "(in Greek, with English abstract)" should be added. Formulae 1. Formulae should be typewritten, if possible. Leave ample space around the formulae. 2. Subscripts and superscripts should be clear. 3. Greek letters and other non-Latin or handwritten symbols should be explained in the margin where they are first used. Take special care to show clearly the difference between zero (0) and the letter O, and between one (1) and the letter l. 4. Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used. 5. For simple fractions use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line. 6. Equations should be numbered serially at the right-hand side in parentheses. In general only equations explicitly referred to in the text need be numbered. 7. The use of fractional powers instead of root signs is recommended. Also powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. 8. Levels of statistical significance which can be mentioned without further explanation are * P<0.05, ** P<0.01 and *** P<0.001. 9. In chemical formula ,valence of ions should be given as e.g, Ca2+ and not as Ca++. 10. Isotope numbers should precede the symbols, e.g., 18O. 11. The repeated writing of chemical formulae in the text is to be avoided where reasonably possible; instead, the name of the compound should be given in full. Exceptions may be made in the case of a very long name occurring very frequently or in the case of a compound being described as the end product of a gravimetric determination (e.g., phosphate as P2O5). Footnotes 1. Footnotes should only be used if absolutely essential. In most cases it should be possible to incorporate the information in normal text. 2. If used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers, and kept as short as possible. Nomenclature 1. Authors and editors are, by general agreement, obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid down in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 2. All biota (crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc.) should be identified by their scientific names when the English term is first used, with the exception of common domestic animals. 3. All biocides and other organic compounds must be identified by their Geneva names when first used in the text. Active ingredients of all formulations should be likewise identified. 4. For chemical nomenclature, the conventions of the International ::union:: of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the official recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature should be followed. Copyright 1. An author, when quoting from someone else's work or when considering reproducing an illustration or table from a book or journal article, should make sure that he/she is not infringing a copyright. 2 Although in general an author may quote from other published works,he/she should obtain permission from the holder of the copyright if he wishes to make substantial extracts or to reproduce tables, plates, or other illustrations. If the copyright-holder is not the author of the quoted or reproduced material, it is recommended that the permission of the author should also be sought. 3. Material in unpublished letters and manuscripts is also protected and must not be published unless permission has been obtained. 4. A suitable acknowledgement of any borrowed material must always be made. Proofs One set of proofs will be sent to the corresponding author as given on the title page of the manuscript. Only typesetter's errors may be corrected; no changes in, or additions to, the edited manuscript will be allowed. The Journal will do everything possible to get your article corrected and published as quickly and accurately as possible. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Subsequent corrections will not be possible, so please ensure your first sending is complete. Offprint The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail or, alternatively, 10 free paper offprints will be supplied. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use. Journal of Research in Agricultural Science has no page charges
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سیستم نشریات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی - واحد خوراسگان Journal of Research in Agricultural Science
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