Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology
An International Journal
Guide for Authors
Types of Articles
Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology publishes the results of fundamental and applied research concerning nutrition or physiology of farm animal (poultry, cattle, sheep, goat, horse, honey bee, camel). Submitted manuscripts shall provide new facts or confirmatory data. Papers dealing with experimental design, teaching, extension endeavors, or those of historical or biographical interest may also be appropriate. A limited number of review papers will be considered for publication if they contribute significant additional knowledge, or synthesis of knowledge, to a subject area. Papers that have been, or are scheduled to be, published elsewhere will not be accepted. Publication of a preliminary report, such as an abstract, does not preclude consideration of a complete report for publication as long as it has not been published in full in a proceedings or similar scientific publication; appropriate identification of previously published preliminary reports should be provided in a title page footnote. Opinions or views expressed in papers published by Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the opinion of the editor-in-chief.
Original Research Articles should report the results of original research. The material should not have been previously published elsewhere, except in a preliminary form. They should not occupy more than 12 Journal pages.
Review Articles should cover subjects falling within the scope of the journal which are of active current interest. Reviews will often be invited, but submitted reviews will also be considered for publication. All reviews will be subject to the same peer review process as applies for original papers. They should not occupy more than 12 Journal pages.
Short Communication is a concise but complete description of a limited investigation, which will not be included in a later paper. Short Communications may be submitted to the journal as such, or may result from a request to condense a regular paper, during the peer review process. They should not occupy more than 5 journal pages (approximately 10 manuscript pages) including figures, tables and references.
Technical Note is a report on a new method, technique or procedure falling within the scope of Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology . It may involve a new algorithm, computer program (e.g. for statistical analysis or for simulation), or testing method for example. The Technical Note should be used for information that cannot adequately incorporated into an Original Research Article, but that is of sufficient value to be brought to the attention of the readers of Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology . The note should describe the nature of the new method, technique or procedure and clarify how it differs from those currently in use if cannot be incorporated. They should not occupy more than 5 Journal pages.
Papers must be written in English. The text and all supporting materials must use American or British, but not a mixture of these.
Authors whose primary language is not English are strongly encouraged to use an English-language service such as one of those listed below*:
Asia Science Editing: http://www.asiascienceediting.com/
Bioscience Editing Solutions: http://scienceditors.com
BioScience Writers: http://www.biosciencewriters.com/
Boston BioEdit: http://www.bostonbioedit.com/
English Manager Science Editing: http://www.sciencemanager.com
Elsevier's WebShop: http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting /
ESE - English Science Editing: http://www.english-science.com
International Science Editing: http://www.internationalscienceediting.com/
SPI Publisher Services: http://www.prof-editing.com/index.php
Write Science Right: http://www.writescienceright.com/
*This is a partial list for informational purposes only. Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology has not an interest in these services, and neither endorses nor takes responsibility for these services, which are commercial, for-profit entities.
In addition, use of any of these services does not guarantee the acceptability of a manuscript for publication.
Editorial Review and Acceptance
The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our readership. Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are peer reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and the Editor. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board, who reserves the right to refuse any material for publication.
Manuscripts should be written so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in the particular field. They should be written in a clear, concise, direct style. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific content, the Editor and the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader. If extensive alterations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.
Care and Use of Animals
Authors must make it clear that experiments were conducted in a manner that avoided unnecessary discomfort to the animals by the use of proper management and laboratory techniques. Experiments shall be conducted in accordance with the principles and specific guidelines presented in Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching, 3rd edition, 2010.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement'. In signing the form it is assumed that authors have obtained permission to use any copyrighted or previously published material. All authors must read and agree to the conditions outlined in the form, and must sign the form. Articles cannot be published until a signed form has been received.
Submission of Manuscripts
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.jfanp.ir or send to firstname.lastname@example.org . Authors must supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email. Two files should be supplied: the covering letter and the manuscript (in Word format). All articles submitted to the Journal must comply with these instructions. Failure to do so will result in return of the manuscript and possible delay in publication.
Papers are accepted for publication in the Journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. This must be stated in the covering letter. The covering letter must also contain an acknowledgment that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript. Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest.
Preparing the Manuscript
Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced, with lines and pages numbered consecutively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points. All margins should be at least 30 mm . All special characters (e.g., Greek, math, symbols) should be inserted using the symbols palette available in this font. Equations created using the new Equation Builder feature in Microsoft Word 2007 may not be compatible with earlier versions of Word or other software used in our journal composition system. Tables and figures should be placed in separate sections at the end of the manuscript (not placed in the text). Failure to follow these instructions may result in an immediate rejection of the manuscript.
Headings. Major Headings are centered (except ABSTRACT), all capitals, boldface, and consist of ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION (or RESULTS AND DISCUSSION), ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (optional), and REFERENCES. First Subheadings are placed on a separate line, begin at the left margin, the first letter of all important words are capitalized, and the headings are boldface and italic. Text that follows a first subheading should be in a new paragraph. Second Subheadings begin the first line of a paragraph. They are indented, boldface, italic, and followed by a period. The first letter of each important word should be capitalized. The text follows immediately after the final period of the subheading.
Parts of the Manuscript
Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: title page, abstract and key words, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion (or results and discussion), acknowledgments (optional), references , tables (each table complete with title and footnotes) and figures.
Title Page. The title page includes a running head or short title ( not more than 45 characters, No abbreviations should be used) ; the title ( boldface and capitalized , as brief as possible, including the species involved and numbers must be given in words rather than in numerals ); names of authors ( first name, last name ; no title, positions, or degrees) and affiliation: Affiliations will be footnoted using the numbered. The corresponding author should be indicated with *, affiliation including the department, city, state and country (all with first letters capitalized).
Abstract. The Abstract consists of no more than 300 words, in one paragraph and It must summarize the major objectives, methods, results (with statistical evidence; i.e., P-values) , conclusions, and practical applications of the research. The Abstract must consist of complete sentences and use of abbreviations should be limited. References to other work and footnotes are not permitted. The Abstract and Key Words must be on a separate sheet of paper.
Key Words. List up to 6 key words or phrases including the species, variables tested, and the major response criteria. The first letter of each key word is lowercase (unless a proper noun); key words are separated by commas; and no abbreviations should be used.
Introduction. The Introduction, while brief, should provide the reader with information necessary for understanding research presented in the paper. Previous work on the topic should be summarized, and the objectives of the current research must be clearly stated.
Materials and Methods. All sources of products, equipment, and chemicals used in the experiments must be specified parenthetically at first mention in text, tables, and figures [i.e., (model 123, ABC Corp., Provo, UT)]. A clear description or specific original reference is required for all biological, analytical, and statistical procedures. All modifications of procedures must be explained. Papers must contain analyzed values for those dietary ingredients that are crucial to the experiment. Papers dealing with the effects of feed additives or graded levels of a specific nutrient must give analyzed values for the relevant additive or nutrient in the diet(s). Dates of experimental activities if appropriate, animals [breed, strain, sex, age, body weight, and weighing conditions (i.e., with or without restriction of feed and water)], surgical techniques, and measurements, statistical models should be described clearly and fully. Also, provide a publication reference for the methodology used in kits. Centrifugal force should be provided in × g, not rpm, and duration and temperature of centrifugation must be included. Include volume of blood collected, container used, and amount of preservative or anticoagulant (e.g., heparin).
Statistical analysis: Appropriate statistical methods should be used, although the biology should be emphasized. Statistical methods commonly used in the animal sciences need not be described in detail, but adequate references should be provided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, and experimental unit must be designated. Any restrictions used in estimating parameters should be defined. Reference to a statistical package without reporting the sources of variation (classes) and other salient features of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal contrasts, is not sufficient. A statement of the results of the statistical analysis should justify the interpretations and conclusions. The experimental unit is the smallest unit to which an individual treatment is imposed. Measurements on the same experimental unit over time also are not independent and should not be considered as independent experimental units. Provide a validation for assays [e.g., mean and CV for repeated analysis of a sample (both between and within-assay if available) and the sensitivity (minimum amount or concentration detectable)]. The pooled standard error of the mean is the preferred estimate of experimental error.
Results. The results are presented in the form of tables or figures when feasible. The text should explain or elaborate on the tabular data, but numbers should not be repeated within the text. Sufficient data, all with some index of variation attached (including significance level; i.e., P-value), should be presented to allow the reader to interpret the results of the experiment. Reporting the actual P-value is preferred to the use of the terms significant and highly significant. Thus, the observed significance level (e.g., P = 0.027) should be presented, thereby allowing the reader to decide what to reject.
Discussion. The discussion should interpret the results clearly and concisely in terms of biological mechanisms and significance and also should integrate the research findings with the body of previously published literature to provide the reader with a broad base on which to accept or reject the hypotheses tested. A stand-alone Discussion section should not refer to any tables or figures, nor should it include P-values (unless citing a P-value from another work).
In Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology authors have the option of combining the Results and Discussion into one section.
Acknowledgments. The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.
References. The Harvard (author, date) system of referencing is used.
Citations in Text: All citations in the text should refer to the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication; Smith (1992), Smith and Jones (1992) or Smith and Jones (1990, 1992). If the sentence structure requires that the authors’ names be included in parentheses, the proper format is (Smith and Jones, 1982; Jones, 1988a,b; Jones et al., 1993). Where there are more than two authors of one article, the first author’s name is followed by “et al.” : Smith et al. (1993). More than one article listed in the same sentence of text must be in chronological order first, and alphabetical order for two publications in the same year.
The author’s own unpublished work should be listed in the text as “(J. Smith, unpublished data).” Personal communications and unpublished data must not be included in the References section.
References section: To be listed in the References section, papers must be published or accepted for publication (“in press”). In the References section, references are listed alphabetically by the author(s)’ last name(s), and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication. All authors’ names must appear in the References section.
Sample references are as follows:
1. Journal articles and abstracts
Bagley LG, Christensen VL. 1991. Hatchability and physiology of turkey embryos incubated at sea level with increased eggshell permeability. Poultry Science, 70:1412–1418.
Hall, J. B., R. B. Staigmiller, R. E. Short, R. A. Bellows,S. E. Bartlett, and D. A. Phelps. 1993. Body composition at puberty in beef heifers as influenced by nutrition and breed. Journal of Animal Science, 71(Suppl. 1):205. (Abstr.)
Nalbandov AV. 1963. Advances in Neuroendocrinology, 2nd edn. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
3. Chapter in a book
Folley SJ, Malpress FH. 1948. Hormonal control on mammary growth. In: Pincuss G, Thimamm KV (eds), The Hormones, Vol. 1, pp. 695–743. Academic Press, New York.
4. Conference proceedings
Van der Werf JHJ. 1990. A note on the use of conditional models to estimate additive genetic variance in selected populations. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Genetics and Applied Livestock Production, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp: 476–479.
5. Electronic publication
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). 1999. Nucleotide–nucleotide BLAST (blastn) [homepage on the Internet]. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD; [cited 13 December 2002]. Available from URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/
El Halawani ME, Rosenboim I. 2004. Method to enhance reproductive performance in poultry. University of Minnesota, Assignee, US Patent, No. 6,766,767.
Tables. Tables must be created using the MS Word table feature and inserted in the manuscript after the references section. Author-defined abbreviations must be defined (or redefined) in each table. When possible, tables should be organized to fit across the page without running broadside. Each column must have a heading (e.g., Item, Ingredient, Trait, Fatty acid). Units should be separated from headings by a comma. Limit the data field to the minimum needed for meaningful comparison within the accuracy of the methods. In the body of the table, references to footnotes should be numerals. Each footnote should begin on a new line. To indicate significant differences among means within a row or column, superscript lowercase letters are used; the preferred statement in the footnotes is: “Within a row (or column), means without a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).” Do not use vertical lines and use few horizontal lines. Use of bold and italic typefaces in the table body should be done sparingly; such use must be defined in a footnote. Each table must be on a separate page.
Figure. Figures should be placed at the end of the manuscript and each figure should be placed on a separate page (separated by section breaks) and identified by the figure number. Figure captions should be typed double spaced on a separate page. The use of color in figures should be avoided unless it is essential to understanding the figure.
Additional Usage Notes
Units. All measurements must be given in SI units.
Trade names. At the first mention of a chemical substance, give the generic name only. Trade names should not be used. Drugs should be referred to by their generic names, rather than brand names. If proprietary drugs have been used in the study, refer to these by their generic name, mentioning the proprietary name, and the name and location of the manufacturer, in parentheses.
Scientific names. Upon its first use in the title, abstract and text, the common name of a species should be followed by the scientific name (Genus, species and authority) in parentheses. However, for well-known species, the scientific name may be omitted from the article title. If no common name exists in English, the scientific name should be used only.
Abbreviations. Author-derived abbreviations should be defined at first use in the abstract and again in the body of the manuscript. The following abbreviations should be used in Journal of Farm Animal Nutrition and Physiology; plural abbreviations do not require a final “s”. Use of 3-letter abbreviations for amino acids (e.g., Ala) and use of standard abbreviations for elements (e.g., S).
equivalent (only can be used with a prefix)
molar (concentration; preferred over mol/L)
metric ton (1,000 kg)
Units of Time
Statistical symbols and abbreviations
analysis of variance
coefficient of variation
degree(s) of freedom
least significant difference
simple correlation coefficient
simple coefficient of determination
multiple correlation coefficient
multiple coefficient of determination
standard deviation (sample)
standard error of the differences of
standard error of the mean
probability of Type I error
probability of Type II error
standard deviation (population)
acid detergent fiber
average daily feed intake
average daily gain
acid detergent insoluble nitrogen
acid detergent lignin
acid insoluble ash
bovine serum albumin
conjugated linoleic acid
crude protein (N × 6.25)
dry matter intake
equine chorionic gonadotropin
essential fatty acid
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
free fatty acid(s)
general linear model
human chorionic gonadotropin
high-performance (pressure) liquid chromatography
insulin-like growth factor
lethal dose 50%
messenger ribonucleic acid
monounsaturated fatty acid
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
reduced form of NAD
neutral detergent fiber
neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen
net energy for gain
net energy for lactation
net energy for maintenance
nonesterified fatty acid
number (use only in tables, not in the text)
National Research Council
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
polymerase chain reaction
pale, soft, and exudative (meat)
polyunsaturated fatty acid(s)
quantitative trait locus (loci)
ruminally degradable protein
ruminally undegradable protein
ribosomal ribonucleic acid
Statistical Analysis System
sodium dodecyl sulfate
saturated fatty acid
total digestible nutrients
thin layer chromatography
transfer ribonucleic acid
total sulfur amino acids
US Department of Agriculture
volatile fatty acid(s)
volume/volume (used only in parentheses)
Weight (use only in tables, not in the text)
weight/volume (used only in parentheses)